Exercises to improve driving in field hockey category 13-  
1
5 years  
Abstract  
Technical preparation in Field Hockey has become more scientific with the passing of  
time. Coaches around the world carefully study and analyze how to prepare their team  
in a more specialized way, taking into account the characteristics of each rival they face.  
Getting the players to have a better attack perception with mastery of driving, midfielders  
capable of maintaining the intensity in the offensive work during the minutes with  
creativity and intelligence, forwards capable of developing a better technical-tactical  
intelligence are variables that are managed, Therefore, the objective of the research was:  
to elaborate exercises that contribute to improve the conduction in field hockey in players  
of the 13-15 year-old category. A representative sample was used according to the  
number of players in the category and their functions within the playing field. To carry  
out the study, different scientific research methods were used, among which are:  
documentary analysis, observation and in the processing of the information, descriptive  
statistics were used, verifying through the evaluation offered by the users that the  
proposal can contribute. to the elevation of the results that the team reaches during the  
next school games.  
Keywords: Exercises; driving, Field Hockey.  
Introduction  
Field Hockey is a sport that is characterized by continuous changes of direction, braking  
and acceleration. For this reason, the work on coordinative capacities is important in the  
early stages of training. The use of coordination circuits in this sport and the work on  
running technique contribute to generating players with better abilities.  
To this is added that the race is performed with an implement (cane) in one or both hands,  
which makes the work of coordinating hand and foot dissociation more relevant.  
Consequently, you will need to be present at each of the sessions in the early stages of  
familiarization with Field Hockey.  
Related to the above, Tamayo (2019) states that athletes who practice this sport need a  
constant capacity for adaptation and motor readaptation, not only depending on motor  
learning, but also on the ability to control movement.  
This author himself points out that the optimal adaptation to situation changes is only  
possible if there are different motor experiences, whose adaptation process must be under  
sufficiently precise motor control to satisfy the motor needs of the new situation.  
The authors García (2016) and Salazar (2015) refer that child and youth training should  
not be a reduced adult training, because the athlete is still growing; A large number of  
physical, mental and psychosocial changes derive from this circumstance, and a series of  
developmental particularities with the corresponding consequences for child and youth  
training, which are related to the individual rhythms of their physical development, the  
levels of its biological maturation and the achievements of its motor potential.  
For sports teaching at these ages, both the motor and cognitive development stages in  
which the athlete is found must be taken into account (since at these ages there may even  
be large variations between one group and another of practically the same age) to achieve  
as complete an adaptation as possible to the program and acceptable results.  
Similarly, Naranjo (2018) proposes that their level of knowledge should be taken into  
account and taken as a reference, in order to carry out an intervention according to their  
psychophysical characteristics and the educational objectives that have been previously  
raised, to reach their goal. playful and competitive development, respecting the  
pedagogical and sporting level in which the athletes are.  
Other authors such as Tamayo and Arboleda (2020); Amorós et al. (2013) and Holwaya  
(2011) agree that technical preparation planning is undoubtedly one of the most important  
factors in predicting improvement in player performance, as long as it is carried out taking  
into account the internal characteristics and needs or technical and tactical requirements  
of the sport in question, to improve the performance of its players.  
Driving in field hockey is of the utmost importance to achieve good results and according  
to Carrasco (2015) it is the displacement that an athlete makes with the ball, which varies  
according to the situation in which he finds himself and adopts different positions taking  
the axis as the axis. body of the same, being necessary when there is no support and to  
favor the unmarking of a teammate.  
Regarding driving, Monroy (2011b) points out that in field hockey its correct learning is  
essential, since its mastery allows different technical combinations to be made as a basis  
for the strategies and tactics used during competitive play, such as feints, passes, changes  
of direction, etc. pace and above all, have control of the ball.  
The field hockey players of the 13-15 year-old category of the "Mártires de Barbados"  
Comprehensive School of School Sports (EIDE) in Havana, subjects of this investigation,  
have gone through the categories that precede them, but there is a reality expressed in the  
incorrect posture in terms of the position of the legs and trunk, as well as the head, limiting  
peripheral vision during the execution of the movement.  
In addition, they have difficulties in gripping the cane and lack of coordination of the  
movement due to the pressure of the opponent at the time of driving, either due to a history  
of competitive experience or because they are not equipped with tools that allow them to  
perform better technically.  
In this regard, it was verified that, in the last three seasons, the field hockey coaches who  
work with the 13-15 year-old category of the aforementioned school, have been carrying  
out technical preparation based on traditional models, based on their experiences.  
personal, being the same little motivating, rigid and dogmatic.  
In addition, a great predominance of physical preparation was observed based on its  
important value for performance; The exercises that are used do not simulate real game  
situations, which does not allow for perfecting driving in a real situation and, in turn, does  
not promote the creative thinking of the players, considering direct contact with the  
environment, discovery, and significant prior knowledge. .  
From the foregoing, a contradiction arises between the need for coaches to have exercises  
that contribute to improving field hockey leadership in players in the 13-15-year-old  
category and the insufficient theoretical, methodological and practical preparation that  
guides them. with objectivity the work that the coaches of this sport must carry out to  
improve the conduction of players in the 13-15 year-old category.  
For the solution of the situation previously raised, the objective of the investigation is  
determined: to develop exercises that contribute to perfect the conduction in field hockey  
in players of the 13-15 year category.  
Through it, it is proposed to improve the knowledge and technical skills that athletes have  
acquired in sport, and thereby train a highly competitive athlete oriented towards  
comprehensive, permanent and quality training of human talent, which will allow them  
to achieve sports goals, with a view to training an athlete who represents Cuban sports in  
different regional, national or international activities.  
Materials and methods  
For the development of this research, theoretical methods were used and as empirical  
methods, documentary analysis: to analyze the normative documents of Field Hockey and  
the existing guidelines for conducting as a technical element.  
Observation: in male athletes aged 13-15 years, with the aim of determining, in tests and  
control games carried out, the main deficiencies associated with the execution of driving.  
Test: with the objective of measuring the abilities of the technical element in the athletes  
(three were carried out in two moments).  
Comparison: It was used to validate the impact of the proposal applied to athletes, by  
making horizontal comparisons of the results obtained in the initial diagnosis and those  
obtained after applying the exercises in the corresponding mesocycle.  
The statistical mathematical methods, the descriptive analysis that allowed exposing the  
proposed design, the stratified sampling with proportional participation considering that  
the elements of the population have a known probability of belonging to the sample, the  
calculation of the average of the multiple results obtained by elements of the sample,  
which allowed their subsequent horizontal comparison and evaluation of the impact.  
The foreseen statistical design allows to identify the population to which this research is  
directed. For this purpose, a stratified sample with proportional participation of 1 in 2 is  
determined, resulting in a random sampling of 9 athletes representing 50 percent of the  
population, characterized according to their roles as follows: defenders four; midfielders  
three and strikers two.  
The evaluation of the results was carried out in two moments of measurement on the same  
group of elements determined as a sample, to which horizontal comparisons were made  
that allowed contrasting the results obtained in the diagnosis and those derived from the  
application of the research proposal. , two discrete random variables were identified  
whose level of measurement is nominal: execution time of the 20 m driving (flat, with  
obstacles, with an opponent) and quality of the execution of the 20 m driving (flat, with  
obstacles, with opponent).  
For the measurement of the first variable, the Scale of the Central State Institute of  
Physical Culture of Moscow (IECCFM) was used; designing evaluative norms as a  
parametric statistical technique, one for the test developed in the 20 m flat and the other  
for the two tests that are developed with static (6 cones) and dynamic (opponent)  
obstacles.  
For the measurement of the second, the observation method was used based on the  
technical characteristics of the element and the experience of the researchers, designing a  
third norm for its evaluation, taking into account the technical errors that could be  
manifested during the execution of the technical element.  
The 20 m flat driving test and the 20 m driving test with six obstacles, described for the  
category in the Comprehensive Athlete Preparation Program, were used as tools, to which  
a third test was added as an interest in the investigation and with the objective of measure  
the skills of the technical element in front of an opponent (driving 20 m with an opponent).  
Using for its measurement what is described in the statistical design proposed during the  
introduction of this research.  
It means that the test "Driving 20 m with an opponent" was designed as part of this  
research based on the need to evaluate the response of athletes during the execution of  
the technical element in situations similar to those that occur in the competitive  
environment. This test, like the previous ones, was evaluated in terms of time and quality  
of execution, despite not being recognized in the revised Comprehensive Athlete  
Preparation Plans (PIPD).  
The tests were applied individually to each athlete, for which the 20 m to be covered were  
marked on the ground and, according to the situations that were required, the environment  
was modified, namely:  
Driving 20 m flat: The delimited distance is covered (2 times) where the execution time  
was taken and from the observation guide designed, notes were taken of the technical  
errors that the athletes presented.  
Driving 20 m with obstacles: The defined distance is covered (2 times), where 6 cones  
are located separated by 3 m between them and 1 m between the start and the first cone,  
and 1 m between the last cone and the end, Likewise, the execution time was taken and  
from the observation guide designed, notes were taken of the technical errors that the  
athletes presented.  
Driving 20 m with an opponent: The defined distance is covered (2 times), where the  
athlete faces an opponent who will actively try to take the ball from him during the course,  
the execution time was also taken and based on the observation guide designed notes were  
taken of the technical errors presented by the athletes.  
Results and Discussion  
Documentary analysis  
The documentary analysis carried out on the PIPDs showed that many modifications and  
transformations are described, but the difficulty continues in relation to technical  
preparation, since no structured observation guides are located that contribute  
significantly to the evaluation of the execution of the basic elements of the sport at  
different levels.  
They do not methodologically describe the good practices for teaching, improvement and  
consolidation of the different technical elements and specifically for the 13-15 year-old  
category, the execution of exercises of a passive nature that do not reproduce the real  
situations that manifest themselves in the games are described. competitive.  
Pedagogical controls are established among which is described as an activity to carry out  
driving in 20 meters, defining the parameters to be evaluated according to the execution  
time and the sex of the athlete, and without taking into account the quality of the execution  
of the technical element.  
The quantitative and qualitative results taking into account the execution time (Table  
No.1) obtained in the diagnosis show that the predominant evaluations are regular and  
insufficient, the most negative being those obtained during the 20 m driving test with an  
opponent, where results of "insufficient" and "very bad" were achieved, which is in  
correspondence with the fact that to date it is not a test that is carried out as part of the  
athlete's evaluation, but was included in the diagnosis made with the objective of  
evaluating the impact of the research proposal on the execution of the technical element  
by male athletes ages 13-15 years.  
Table No.1 Results of the diagnosis according to the execution time of the 20 m driving (flat, with  
obstacles and with an opponent)  
RESULTS OF THE DIAGNOSIS ACCORDING TO THE TIME OF EXECUTION OF THE 20m DRIVE (FLATS, WITH OBSTACLES AND WITH OPPONENTS  
POINTS (P) ACCORDING TO THE IECCFM  
Sample  
DRIVING (20m) EXPRESSED IN TIME  
EVALUATION  
SCALE  
W/  
OBSTACLES  
W/  
OBSTACLES  
W/  
OBSTACLES  
Athletes BLUEPRINTS  
W/OPPONENT BLUEPRINTS  
W/OPPONENT BLUEPRINTS  
W/OPPONENT  
7
7
8
7
7
8
8
7
7
.54  
.53  
.25  
.30  
.45  
.05  
.08  
.39  
.25  
10.06  
12.05  
11.23  
12.20  
13.10  
14.00  
13.01  
12.41  
12.39  
14.26  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
67.94  
67.62  
90.48  
60.32  
65.08  
84.13  
85.08  
63.17  
58.73  
52.62  
53.79  
57.28  
70.87  
100.00  
76.31  
56.50  
72.43  
90.29  
91.26  
75.34  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Very bad  
Insufficient  
Insufficient  
10.12  
10.30  
11.00  
12.50  
11.28  
10.26  
11.08  
12.00  
94.17  
Insufficient  
Regular  
Insufficient  
Very bad  
111.65  
129.13  
109.90  
98.25  
Very bad  
Very bad  
Regular  
Insufficient Insufficient  
Insufficient  
Regular  
Good  
Regular  
Regular  
Insufficient  
Insufficient  
Very bad  
97.86  
134.17  
Insufficient  
Source: self made  
During the initial diagnosis, the quality of the execution of the technical element was  
evaluated (Table No.2) from the application of the observation guide, technical errors that  
affect its correct execution were observed, identifying a greater presence of them during  
the Carrying out the 20 m driving with obstacles and with an opponent.  
Fundamentally incorrect posture in terms of the position of the legs and trunk; incorrect  
grip on the cane; take off the ball from the stick while driving with obstacles and in front  
of the opponent; the lack of coordination of the movement before the pressure of the  
opponent; incorrect head position limiting peripheral vision during execution.  
Tabla No.2 Resultados del diagnóstico atendiendo a la calidad de la ejecución de la conducción 20 m  
(planos, con obstáculos y con oponente)  
EVALUATION OF THE VARIABLE DIAGNOSIS "QUALITY OF THE EXECUTION OF THE TECHNICAL  
ELEMENT OF 20m DRIVING"  
Sample  
EVALUATION SUMMARY  
QUALITATIVE  
ASSESSMENT  
FINAL AVERAGE  
Athletes BLUEPRINTS  
W/ OBSTACLES  
1.67  
W/OPPONENT  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2.33  
2.17  
2.17  
2.33  
2.33  
2.17  
2.67  
2.00  
2.67  
1.83  
1.17  
1.83  
1.17  
1.50  
1.83  
1.50  
1.00  
2.33  
1.94  
1.56  
1.78  
1.72  
1.72  
1.89  
2.06  
1.50  
2.44  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Regular  
Good  
1.33  
1.33  
1.67  
1.33  
1.67  
2.00  
1.50  
2.33  
Regular  
Good  
The research proposed by Timmerman, (2019), Tchou, (2019) and Brocken (2020) is used  
as a basis for the research proposal, which refer to good practices as teaching and learning  
methods at school ages that can be applied to invasion sports such as Field Hockey to  
achieve a greater influence of the activities and tasks to be carried out during training  
sessions such as:  
The method of games in reduced spaces  
The use of modified games where the playing area, rules, and equipment are tampered  
with.  
Inclusion of exercises that promote movement variability, which favors the athlete's  
thinking in the search for movement solutions that satisfy the ever-changing interaction  
of the limitations proposed during training.  
Combine different elements within the training so that the activities are new and fun,  
promoting interest in Field Hockey in children of different ages.  
Always take into account the various psychological and physiological factors such as  
levels of maturation, physical aptitudes and the ability to understand the technical nature  
of the sport.  
As possible methods to integrate with those established in the PIPD, this research assumes  
games in reduced spaces and the manipulation of areas, rules and equipment (Figure  
No.1). These, together with attention to the particularities of each athlete and the inclusion  
of motivating elements, resulted in exercises that contribute to perfect driving and will  
enable coaches who work with the 13-15 year old category to have a methodological tool  
that allows the improvement of offensive technical skills.  
The proposed exercises have an objective aimed at perfecting driving; describes  
recommendations for its implementation where the aspects to be taken into account in the  
training sessions are exposed, among which are the observance of the morphofunctional  
and psychological characteristics of each of the athletes in order to guarantee the optimal  
incidence for the achievement of the goal. objective, and the planning of the observation  
of the key elements of each proposed task, it also has exercises that are exemplified from  
its detailed description and its graphic representation, including the form of  
implementation.